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A CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING ANIMALS by LORD ROTHSCHILD

By LORD ROTHSCHILD

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The younger son of Sir William Jackson Hooker, he was assistant director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew from 1855 to 1865 and, succeeding his father, was then director from 1865 to 1885. , in 1839. Through his familiarity with his father’s herbarium, he was well prepared for the first of his many travels—as surgeon-botanist aboard HMS Erebus on the Antarctic expedition of 1839–43. M. Discovery-Ships Erebus and Terror in 1839–1843 ( 1 8 4 4 – 6 0 ) ; Rhododendrons of Sikkim Himalya (1849); The Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker.

Evolutionary algorithms are simplistic compared with biological evolution, but they have provided robust and powerful mechanisms for finding solutions to all sorts of problems in economics, industrial production, and the distribution of goods and services. Darwin’s notion of natural selection also has been extended to areas of human discourse outside the scientific setting, particularly in the fields of sociopolitical theory and economics. The extension can be only metaphoric, because in Darwin’s intended meaning natural selection applies only to hereditary variations in entities endowed with biological reproduction—that is, to living organisms.

S. Haldane in Britain and Sewall Wright in the United States. Their work contributed to the downfall of mutationism and, most important, provided a theoretical framework for the integration of genetics into Darwin’s theory of natural selection. Yet their work had a limited impact on contemporary biologists for several reasons—it was formulated in a mathematical language that most biologists could not understand; it was almost exclusively theoretical, with little empirical corroboration; and it was limited in scope, largely omitting many 48 7 Understanding Evolution 7 issues, such as speciation (the process by which new species are formed), that were of great importance to evolutionists.

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