By Edwin A. Lyon
Recipient of the 1994 Anne B. and James B. McMillan Prize
This complete learn offers a historical past of recent Deal archaeology within the Southeast within the Nineteen Thirties and early Nineteen Forties and specializes in the tasks of the Federal Emergency reduction management, the Civil Works management, the Works development management, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the nationwide Park carrier, and the Smithsonian Institution.
using basic assets together with correspondence and unpublished studies, Lyon demonstrates the nice value of the hot Deal initiatives within the background of southeastern and North American archaeology. New Deal archaeology reworked the perform of archaeology within the Southeast and created the foundation for the self-discipline that exists this present day. With the present emphasis on curation and repatriation, archaeologists and historians will locate this quantity important in reconstructing the background of the initiatives that generated the various collections that now fill our museums.
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Extra info for A New Deal for Southeastern Archaeology
The mound area of central Kentucky contained many mounds, village sites, and fortifications. While the investigators saw similarities to sites in Ohio they knew that much archaeological work would be necessary before identifying the builders of the mounds. "86 By the time Webb became involved in federal archaeology in 1933 he had a good knowledge of the archaeology of Kentucky as it was known at the time, enabling him to select sites for excavation with significant potential for increasing knowledge of Kentucky prehistory.
He knew that "shell heaps" existed along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, rivers, and lakes, and that burial mounds were I4 Southeastern Archaeology before the Depression widespread. Holmes recognized that Native Americans in some regions practiced agriculture. He relied on "earthenware" for much of his information. He found stamped or paddle-decorated surfaces in the east and north, while engraved and indented designs predominated in the west. He looked for evidence of relationships with Mesoamerica and the West Indies.
In the 1880s he investigated the pottery of the Mississippi Valley. In 1889, when he moved to the Bureau of American Ethnology, he studied ceramics recovered during the mound survey. He also analyzed pottery found by C. B. Moore in Florida. This experience enabled him to publish his study Aboriginal Pottery of the Eastern United States in 1903. According to Stoltman, Holmes divided the Southeast into six ceramic "provinces": Middle Mississippi, Lower Mississippi, Gulf Coast, Florida Peninsula, South Appalachian, and Middle Atlantic.