Advanced Metallization and Interconnect Systems for Ulsi by R. C. Ellwanger, S. Q. Wang

By R. C. Ellwanger, S. Q. Wang

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29) Only two electrons can have the same energy level. According to the Pauli principle, successive electrons have to occupy higher levels. The energy of the electrons of the highest occupied state at T = 0 is called the Fermi energy EF . 30) where n is the average electron density. The available energetic states are filled at T = 0 K up to a maximum value of |k |. This is denoted by k F and is called the Fermi momentum. 34) where rs is measured in atomic units. 2 parameters of the electron subsystem in some metals are presented.

Where Φ0 is the amplitude of the wave, R is the distance from the origin O to the point of observation. 2) should be summed up over all the crystal lattice points. Let us consider a specimen of parallelepiped shape. The crystal lattice contains Na atoms along the side a of the elementary cell. Similarly, the crystal has Nb nodes in the direction b and Nc nodes in the direction c. Fig. 4 The interference functions: B, the number of reflected atomic layers is equal to 4, C, the number of atomic layers is 10.

It is convenient to examine data of electron reflections in terms of reciprocal space. The reciprocal lattice is known to be an image that is related uniquely 37 38 2 Some Experimental Techniques Fig. 5 The scheme of scattering of the lowenergy electrons in the reciprocal space of molybdenum. 2746 nm. The Ewald sphere of the radius 2π/λ is shown. k and k are wave vectors of the incident and scattered waves, respectively. The vectors of the reciprocal lattice are K = k − k. The points of the reciprocal lattice are elongated to rods on account of the small thickness of the plate under examination.

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