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Alternatives to Hitler: German Resistance under the Third by Hans Mommsen

By Hans Mommsen

Possible choices to Hitler: German Resistance below the 3rd Reich КНИГИ ;ВОЕННАЯ ИСТОРИЯ Издательство: I B Tauris & Co LtdАвтор(ы): Hans MommsenЯзык: EnglishГод издания: 2003Количество страниц: 320ISBN: 1-86064-745-6Формат: pdf (e-book)Размер: 1.64 mb RAPIDили IFOLDER zero

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5 For the German Communist Party (KPD), which had already fought uncompromisingly against the Weimar system, the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to bloody street brawls in which many lives were lost. They then decided to adopt different campaigning methods, in the widespread expectation that Hitler would soon run out of steam. Significantly, the Social Democrats, some of whom sought to adapt to the regime, held on to the notion that it would be possible, by keeping a low profile, to bring the party organization safely through the phase of openly Fascist dictatorship – this despite warnings from within their own ranks, from people such as Rudolf Breitscheid.

The later plans for a new political order drew to a large extent on the neo-conservative and corporatist ideas of the Weimar era, and especially on Oswald Spengler’s model of ‘Prussian socialism’. For quite a number of the plotters, including Fritz-Dietlof von der Schulenburg, the Prussian tradition represented a key motive for resistance. However, this did not go unchallenged and was questioned mainly by Yorck 16 and Moltke, who rejected any form of ‘deification of the state’ (Staatsvergottung) and saw clearly that the ‘lie of the authoritarian state’, in Gustav Radbruch’s phrase, was one of the roots of the National Socialist Führer-state.

In view of the ‘legitimacy’ which it had arrogated to itself, nothing less than an act of revolution, going beyond removal of the criminal elements of the Nazi elite, could lead to the root-and-branch changes they aspired to. In the given circumstances this would involve killing the dictator. Regardless of the problem of the oath of allegiance – which in retrospect has been overstated – the unifying force of the Hitler myth could not be extinguished in any other way. Goerdeler hoped that, by exposing the crimes and irresponsibility of the Führer, they could bring the masses over to their side.

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