By David Eldridge
В этой книге предлагается краткий обзор главных культурных событий Америки в 30-х годах XX века: в области литературы и театра, музыки и радио, кино и фотографии, живописи и дизайна, а также ведущей роли федерального правительства в развитии искусств. Книга помогает понять культурные импульсы радикализма, национализма и бегство от действительности, характерные для Соединенных Штатов в 1930-е.Образцы сканов:
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The notion of the ‘Depression decade’ does need some qualification, if only because the contrast between an ebullient 1920s and a 4 American Culture in the 1930s despairing 1930s distracts attention from the fact that some sectors of the economy were depressed long before 1929. 5 It also needs to be acknowledged that different people experienced the consequences of the Depression with different intensity, and that economic difficulties did not entirely define their existence. However, it remains true that almost every other narrative conceptualization of the years in question – whether the ‘Red Decade’, the ‘New Deal era’, the ‘Fervent Years’, the ‘age of Roosevelt’, or the ‘age of the CIO’ – is rooted in the immediate context of the Depression, drawing ‘defining characteristics’ from the intellectual, political and cultural responses to the crisis.
81 Certainly FDR’s convalescence provided an opportunity for Eleanor herself to become his ‘social conscience’, as she stood in for him at political functions during this time and became a key conduit for bringing social reform and human rights issues to his attention. Indeed, as he resumed his political career, these concerns became the The Intellectual Context 21 marker of his governorship of New York. Even before the Depression hit, he had a reputation as a ‘reform Democrat’, instituting the New York Public Service Commission, developing publicly-owned hydroelectric power and providing assistance to the state’s farmers.
When Stalin then shocked the world in August 1939 by signing a non-aggression pact with Hitler, few American intellectuals retained any further faith in Communism. In short, the notion of the years 1930–9 as the ‘Red Decade’ does not stand up to scrutiny. In fact, it was a perception generated primarily by anti-Communists, with the epithet coined in 1941 as the title of a book by Eugene Lyons. Presenting the CPUSA as ‘almost omnipotent’ in its ability to ‘dictate cultural trends’ and ‘control US foreign policy’, Lyons’s polemical The Red Decade was widely dismissed at the time of publication.