Metallurgy

Elements of X-Ray Diffraction . A Volume in Addison-Wesley by B. D. CULLITY

By B. D. CULLITY

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Additional resources for Elements of X-Ray Diffraction . A Volume in Addison-Wesley Series in Metallurgy and Materials.

Example text

2-18(b), 90 rotation about ions into coincidence. the 4-fold [010] rotation axis shown brings the chlorine ion at coincidence with the chlorine ion at ^11, the sodium ion at the sodium ion at 1 1 \ into with 1 1 1 1, etc. Elements and compounds often have closely similar structures. 2-19 shows the unit cells of diamond and the zinc-blende form Both are face-centered cubic. Diamond has 8 atoms per unit Figure of ZnS. cell, lo- cated at 000 + 1 i I The atom face-centering translations + face-centering translations.

Figure l-18(a) shows the intensity of the continu- ous spectrum as a function of wavelength and (b) the variation of film sensitivity. 1 1 This merely a plot 5 of latter curve is the mass absorp- of silver bromide, the active ingredient of the emul- tion coefficient X (angstroms) FIG. 1-18. sensitivity and Relation effective between film shape of con- tinuous spectrum (schematic): (a) continuous spectrum from a tungsten target at 40 kv; (b) film sensitivity; (c) black- ening curve for spectrum shown in (a).

FIG. 1-17. Since an x-ray tube is less than 1 percent efficient in producing x-rays since the diffraction of x-rays by crystals is far less efficient than this, and it follows that the intensities of diffracted x-ray beams are extremely low. it may require as much as several hours exposure to a photographic In fact, film in order to detect them at all. Constant efforts are therefore being made to increase the intensity of the x-ray source. One solution to this problem is the rotating-anodc tube, in which rotation of the anode con- tinuously brings fresh target metal into the focal-spot area and so allows a greater power input without excessive heating of the anode.

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